Archaeological Services

Surveying the Historic Environment


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Geographical Information Systems are increasingly employed in archaeology as a research tool to sort and analyse the growing body of data, which is mostly a direct result of archaeological planning considerations.

Simply put, GIS is a system of hardware, software and procedures to manipulate, analyse, model and represent data referenced geographically.

It is based on multiple layers each representing different types of landscape information, e.g. topography, hydrography, road networks. Each layer is linked to tabulated data.

There are many applications of a GIS in archaeology:

Data inventories
Spatial analysis
Distribution maps
Buffer zones or distance areas
Line of sight: viewshed maps
Predictive modelling

Site survey: concentration of wheel-thrown pottery,
northern Madrid

Distribution of prehistoric sites in southern Madrid

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